عنوان مقاله [English]
Aim and Introduction: Over the past two decades, substantial research has examined the strategic role of purchasing within organizations. Despite extensive theoretical, operational, and even pathological investigations, the need for a holistic and integrated perspective on purchasing strategies persists. In light of this, our current research focuses on providing a comprehensive analysis of studies on purchasing strategies to offer a panoramic view of this crucial subject, aiming to bridge gaps and inform future studies.
Methodology: In pursuit of our research objective, we adopted the scoping review, as a method with the ability to identify the conceptual boundaries of an area, the size of related researches and any research gaps, after evaluating 14 review approaches. A six-step methodological framework was employed, encompassing: 1) Identifying and defining the research question, 2) Identifying relevant research articles, 3) Selecting studies aligned with the research question, 4) Organizing data in tables, 5) Summarizing and reporting findings, and 6) Optionally consulting stakeholders about the findings. Five reputable scientific databases -Scopus, Ebsco, ProQuest, Google Scholar, and Emerald - were systematically searched, yielding a total of 4697 articles. Following a rigorous three-stage screening process based on: a) publication date, title, keywords, abstract b) non-repetitiveness c) in-depth content evaluation, 82 articles were selected for detailed review, adhering to the PRISMA screening framework. PRISMA is a credible framework in the literature of review researches.
Findings: Analysis of the obtained results indicates a notable surge in publications in the field of purchasing strategies since the early 21st century. The selected articles extracted from 48 reputable scientific journals, and more than half of which published in highly ranked purchasing and supply journals with an impressive H-index. Empirical research methods were most frequently utilized, accounting for over 50% of the articles, followed by conceptual (approximately 16%) and interpretive methods (around 11%). Geographically, Europe, Asia, and America contributed to 37%, 20%, and 17% of the frequency of empirical articles, respectively. Furthermore, a considerable proportion of reviewed articles (49%) encompassed diverse industries, transcending specific sectors, with industrial equipment being the next prominent focus. In terms of content, researchers displayed particular interest in purchasing strategy types, the impact of such strategies on organizational performance, and purchasing portfolio models, followed closely by factors influencing purchasing strategies, their alignment with other organizational strategies, buyer and supplier relationship management and the development of purchasing strategy concepts.
Discussion and Conclusion: Conducting research via a scoping review approach offers distinct advantages over non-systematic reviews, ensuring enhanced accuracy, credibility, and alignment with the primary research goal. This study diverges from systematic reviews that have attempted to develop the purchasing strategy subject through cross-conceptual borrowing. Instead, our research focuses on identifying the breadth of investigations within the organizational purchasing strategies domain.
Reviewing and analyzing various research types conducted since 1994, a discernible upward trend in the number of studies related to purchasing strategies and associated concepts, such as purchasing management, supply management, and supply strategies, has been observed since the turn of the century. Noteworthy achievements in content analysis reveal: 1. Despite the equivalent usage of "purchase" and "supply" in many studies, there is a subtle difference between these two concepts. 2. The strategy formation and selection are strongly influenced by the internal (culture, leadership, corporate strategy, product features, ...) and environmental factors (market conditions, Industry characteristics, uncertainty, …) acting as antecedents to purchasing strategies. 3. Different internal and environmental conditions, often leading to the development of unique actions and strategies adopted by organizations, beyond the existing literature. Therefore, categorizing strategies is not always an easy task. 4. In recent years, the relationship between purchasing strategies and crucial aspects such as purchasing portfolio models, organizational performance, and alignment with other organizational strategies across various organizational levels, product life cycles and buyer and supplier relationship management have been the center of attention of researchers in this field. Observing and identifying areas that have received less attention can provide more future study opportunities. 5. The identified gaps emphasize on: a) the necessity of developing diverse, responsive purchasing strategy models due to the limited dimensions of most current models, and b) the importance of conducting industry-specific studies applicable across multiple sectors, in that the results of empirical studies that are based on industry data and business environment can rarely be generalized to the entire specific industry for practical application.
This comprehensive scoping review offers valuable insights to researchers and practitioners aiming to enhance the understanding and implementation of purchasing strategies within organizations. The encompassing overview of existing literature, as well as identified research directions, will contribute to closing gaps and facilitating future advancements in this pivotal field.